In his timely book, Islam, Modernity and the Human Sciences (2011), Ali Zaidi suggests that the modern human sciences appear to significantly challenge transcendent and religious explanations of the human condition in two ways. First, the modern human sciences posit that knowledge of the human condition has an irreducibly historical character. Second, in contrast to religious explanations, which maintain the dimension of transcendence of human being, the modern human sciences posit that positive, empirical knowledge provides a more objective and accurate account of social reality. Zaidi continues his explanation,
By drawing upon modern ways of knowing and understanding that are rooted in critical rationalism, positivism, empiricism, historicism, and immanent explanations, the human sciences seem to represent the apex of secular-cultural modernity and a clear break with a metaphysical, religious understanding of the world.